He was born in A. The early life of Hadrat Umar is not known in detail. In his youth he was a famous wrestler and orator, and a spirited person. He was one among the few people in Mecca who knew reading and writing before Islam. His main occupation was business. UMAR R.
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Fars Persia Umar was first to establish a special department for the investigation of complaints against the officers of the State. This department acted as the Administrative court , where the legal proceedings were personally led by Umar. In important cases Muhammad ibn Maslamah was deputed by Umar to proceed to the spot, investigate the charge and take action.
Sometimes an Inquiry Commission was constituted to investigate the charge. Umar was known for this intelligence service through which he made his officials accountable.
He also kept a record system for messages he sent to Governors and heads of state. He was the first to appoint police forces to keep civil order. He was the first to discipline the people when they became disordered. Al Harith replied that he had some money and he engaged in trade with it. Umar said: By Allah, we did not send you to engage in trade! He ordered the building of a canal connecting the Nile to the Red Sea and an improvement of port infrastructure on the Arabian coast.
These two canals were the basis for the agricultural development for the whole Basra region and used for drinking water. Umar also adopted a policy of assigning barren lands to those who undertook to cultivate them. This policy continued during the Umayyad period and resulted in the cultivation of large areas of barren lands through the construction of irrigation canals by the state and by individuals.
During his rule, the garrison cities amsar of Basra and Kufa were founded or expanded. He also permitted Jewish families to resettle in Jerusalem, which had previously been barred from all Jews.
Umar also forbade non-Muslims from residing in the Hejaz for longer than three days. Umar was founder of Fiqh , or Islamic jurisprudence. Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time, he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted.
A recently discovered Judeo-Arabic text has disclosed the following anecdote:  "Umar ordered Gentiles and a group of Jews to sweep the area of the Temple Mount.
Umar oversaw the work. The Jews who had come sent letters to the rest of the Jews in Palestine and informed them that Umar had permitted resettlement of Jerusalem by Jews. Umar, after some consultation, permitted seventy Jewish households to return. They returned to live in the southern part of the city, i. Their aim was to be near the water of Silwan and the Temple Mount and its gates. Then the Commander Umar granted them this request. The seventy families moved to Jerusalem from Tiberias and the area around it with their wives and children.
According to one estimate more than 4, cities were captured during these military conquests. At his death in November , his rule extended from present day Libya in the west to the Indus river in the east and the Oxus river in the north. Great famine In CE, Arabia fell into severe drought followed by a famine. Soon after, the reserves of food at Medina began to run out. Umar ordered caravans of supplies from Syria and Iraq, and personally supervised their distribution.
His actions saved countless lives throughout Arabia. For internally displaced people, Umar hosted a dinner every night at Medina, which according to one estimate, had attendance of more than a hundred thousand people.
While Umar was on his way to visit Syria, at Elat , he was received by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, governor of Syria, who informed him about the plague and its intensity, and suggested that Umar go back to Medina.
Umar tried to persuade Abu Ubaidah to come with him to Medina, but he declined to leave his troops in that critical situation. Abu Ubaidah died in of the plague, which also cost the lives of 25, Muslims in Syria. After the plague had weakened, in late , Umar visited Syria for political and administrative re-organization, as most of the veteran commanders and governors had died of the plague. After consulting with the poor, Umar established the first welfare state, Bayt al-mal.
The Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years, from the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century through the Umayyad period — and well into the Abbasid era. Umar also introduced a child benefit and pensions for the children and the elderly. A fallen sword can be seen. In , Umar was assassinated by a Persian slave named Abu Lulu by later accounts. His motivation for the assassination is not clear. Umar then is reported to have asked Abu Lulu: "I heard that you make windmills; make one for me as well.
According to the plan, before the Fajr prayers the morning prayers before the dawn Piruz would enter Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, the main mosque of Medina where Umar led the prayers and would attack Umar during the prayers, and then flee or mix with the congregation at the mosque.
On 31 October , Piruz attacked Umar while he was leading the morning prayers, stabbing him six times in the belly and finally in the navel, that proved fatal. Umar was left profusely bleeding while Piruz tried to flee, but people from all sides rushed to capture him; in his efforts to escape he is reported to have wounded twelve other people, six or nine of whom later died, before slashing himself with his own blade to commit suicide.
However, it has been reported that he said that if Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Khalid ibn Walid or Salim , the mawla and freed Persian slave, were alive he would have appointed one of them his successor. He was excluded on the basis of being related by blood and of the same tribe as Umar. Umar had a policy of not appointing anyone related to him to a position of authority even if they were qualified by his standards. Until the appointment of the next caliph, Umar appointed a notable Sahabi and mawla, Suhayb ar-Rumi Suhayb the Roman , as a caretaker caliph.
After this revelation, it seemed clear that it had been planned by the Persians residing in Medina. Ubaidullah was intercepted by the people of Medina, who prevented him from continuing the massacre. Amr ibn al-Aas is said to have intercepted him and convinced him to hand over his sword. The murder of Jafinah enraged Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, his foster brother, and he assaulted Ubaidullah ibn Umar; again the companions intervened. When Umar was informed about the incident, he ordered Ubaidullah imprisoned, and that the next caliph should decide his fate.
Physical appearance Umar was strong, fit, athletic and good at wrestling. He is said to have participated in the wrestling matches on the occasion of the annual fair of Ukaz. He would always color his beard and take care of his hair using a type of plant. He organized an effective intelligence network, one of the reasons for his strong grip on his bureaucracy. He dismissed his most successful general, Khalid ibn Walid , because he wanted people to know that it is Allah who grants victory, and to counter the cult of personality that had built up around Khalid, for the sake of the Muslim faith.
But with all of this, he was also known for being kindhearted, answering the needs of the fatherless and widows.
Known examples of such settlements are Basra and Kufa, in Iraq, and Fustat south of what would later become Cairo. His soldiers were forbidden to own land outside of Arabia. There were restrictions on their right to seize buildings and other immovable things usually thought of as prizes of war. Movable spoils were shared with the people of the umma, regardless of their social stratum.
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Shibli, his biographer, says that in his youth he grazed camels. When Muhammad proclaimed his mission, many people acknowledged him as the Messenger of God. Umar acknowledged him as Messenger of God after six years. Some historians claim that Umar was a most awe-inspiring man, and when he accepted Islam, the idolaters were gripped with fear for their lives.
A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims
Voshura He then imposed upon them the duty of electing a khalifa with the stipulation that if anyone of them disagreed with the majority, he would forfeit his life. The dress code of male companions was also controversial, mostly for wearing gowns below a[nkle, which is discouraged in Islam. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The reason why he did this was, because he was afraid that Muslims will start associating all the victories with Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed RA instead of thinking them from Allah. Umar bin al-Khattab, the Second Khalifa of the Muslims.
UMAR RALI HISTORY IN TAMIL PDF
Yogore More stuff He volunteered to kill him his father. His first stipulation was that the candidate who gets most of the votes, would become khalifa. After the city was built, Umar appointed Abu Musa Ashaari as its first governor. The Dutch were not only good sailors and navigators; they were also good merchants and colonizers. Ibn Umar participated in Battles in Iraq, Persia and Egypt, but he remained neutral throughout the first civil war. Various other strict codes of conduct were to be obeyed by the governors and state officials.