AP 1 and AP 2 are both segments of a single category. Branching linguistics In the present study two significant characteristics of pro-drop languages, i. The constituency-based structures are right-branching insofar as the non-head daughter is to the right of the head. In this way, the author gets two locally linear relations on nonterminals, i. A category excludes all categories not dominated by both its segments. His explanation for the lack of wh-movement in Japanese is the most striking example of this.
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As a natural consequence to the uniquely imposed specifier-head-complement order, movements are also highly restricted to given positions in the role of suitable landing sites for moving constituents. The chapter deals with very concrete issues, all of them illustrating how the Linear Correspondence Axiom and the accompanying principles work in practice.
Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9 are dedicated to syntxx application of the theory represented in the previous chapters to different syntactic phenomena. Branching linguistics Ahtisymmetry, then, leads to a universal Specifier-Head-Complement order. Worth noting in this area is that the more layered the syntactic structures are, the more discontinuities can occur, which means the component of the theory that addresses discontinuities must play a greater role. Acquisition of Relative Clauses: Lin cites this and other related findings as evidence that the above analysis is correct, supporting the view that Chinese aspect phrases are deeply head-initial.
Another generalization about linear order concerns the adjunction of heads. The following trees have been chosen to illustrate the extent to which a structure can be entirely left- or entirely right-branching. In all of these positions a point of symmetry is observed which can be broken in two ways: Editor for this issue: The direction of branching reflects the position of heads in phrasesand in this regard, right-branching structures are head-initialwhereas left-branching structures are head-final.
The standard X-bar schema has the following structure:. The Antisymmetry of Syntax. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The upper row shows the constituency-based structures, and the lower row the dependency-based structures. Kayne hypothesizes that all phrases whose surface order is not specifier-head-complement have undergone movements that disrupt this underlying order.
Strictly binary branching structures increase the amount of syntactic structure number of nodes to the upper limit of what is possible, whereas flatter n-ary branching tends to restrict the amount antisymmftry structure that the theory can assume. A category excludes all categories not dominated by both its segments. The eventual result reflects the ordering of complex nested phrases found in a language like Japanese.
The nature of branching is most visible with full trees. We can define the chapters from 1 to 4 as those representing, so to kamye, the static part of the syntactic model. For the property of mathematical relations, see Antisymmetric relation. The following tree illustrates these concepts:. Bare small clause is a kind of clause which is the complement of copulas and by virtue of having no position for functional heads; it can include a point of symmetry.
This structure is both left- and right branching. In terms of merged pairs, this structure can also be represented as:. A nonhead cannot be adjoined to a head.
In the same chapter, the author turns to the structure below the word level and tries to explore how the theory works at the morphemic level. In a article, the linguist Marc Richards argued that a head parameter must only reside at PF, as it is unmaintainable in its original form as a structural parameter.
Linearization antisymmetrry Chains and Sideward Movement. The following structures demonstrate right-branching:. In the big picture, right-branching structures tend to outnumber the left-branching structures in English, which means that trees usually grow down to the right. Linguistic Inquiry 19, — Thhe, any merger of DP and VP leads to a point of symmetry; provided that, that DP plays the role of the subject of the whole phrase. In accordance with the universal word order of heads and complements, R.
On the double object construction. The constituency-based structures are right-branching insofar as the non-head daughter is to the right of the head. Most 10 Related.
LINGUIST List 6.1651
Kayne notes that his theory permits either a universal specifier-head-complement order or a universal complement-head-specifier order, depending on whether asymmetric c-command establishes precedence or subsequence S-H-C results from precedence. Kayne suggests that in Japanese, the whole of the clause apart from the question particle in C has moved to the [Spec,CP] position. The adjunction of more than one nonhead to a given nonhead is impossible. This rejects the idea of an underlying ordering which is then subject to movement, as posited in the Antisymmetry theory and in certain other approaches. These ways of breaking points of symmetry can justify the subject-verb free inversion in pro-drop languages.
KANYE THE ANTISYMMETRY OF SYNTAX PDF
Zulkijar Kayne, The Antisymmetry of Syntax Editor for this issue: Relative clause extrapositon is reanalyzed as relative clause stranding. His explanation for the lack of wh-movement in Japanese is the most striking example of this. Subsequently, there have also been attempts at deriving specifier-complement-head as the basic word order. Levels of Syntactic Representation.