The specific problem is: section titles. Please help improve this article if you can. Please reference bibliography section for other works on labeling of each circuit. Leary The vegetative-invertebrate circuit Wilson The oral bio-survival circuit    [ edit ] This circuit is concerned with nourishment, physical safety, comfort and survival, suckling , cuddling, etc. The imprint will normally last for life unless it is re-imprinted by a powerful experience.
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Addendum: Exo-Psychology Revisited Exo-Psychology Revisited Brain circuits juvenilized by weightlessness will mediate a concomitantly juvenilized subjectivity. The psychedelic, or entheogenic , experience provides a preview of the de-differentiated consciousness likely to characterize the juvenilized minds of extraterrestrials.
One conclusion was forced upon my mind at that time, and my impression of its truth has ever since remained unshaken.
It is that our normal waking consciousness, rational consciousness as we call it, is but one special type of consciousness, whilst all about it, parted from it by the filmiest of screens, there lie potential forms of consciousness entirely different. We may go through life without suspecting their existence; but apply the requisite stimulus, and at a touch they are there in all their completeness, definite types of mentality which probably somewhere have their field of application and adaptation.
No account of the universe in its totality can be final which leaves these other forms of consciousness quite discarded. How to regard them is the question—for they are so discontinuous with ordinary consciousness. Yet they may determine attitudes, though they cannot furnish formulas, and open a region, though they fail to give a map.
At any rate, they forbid a premature closing of our accounts with reality. As a result, the Harvard psychologist became a notorious public figure.
The mind-altering effects of LSD and similar drugs alarmed conservative America. As a result, Leary crossed paths with the U. More research into the medical uses of LSD should be done, but the medical establishment as well as medical malpractice law attorneys would likely fight it in court.
Then, as if to confound fans and critics alike, the counterculture impresario re-emerged in the late s as a proponent of Intelligent Design. He proffered to audiences attending his "stand-up philosopher" performances a teleological model of evolution, one guided by Higher Intelligence.
The confusion and fear generated by transcendental states of consciousness may be due to the possibility that they are designed for post-terrestrial existence.
The new shtick elicited mixed feedback from the old hippies, young cyberpunks, and other curiosity seekers who took the time to listen. Leary organized his ideas about evolution into Exo-Psychology , published in , an ambitious and provocative book that modestly billed itself as "a manual on the use of the human nervous system according to the instructions of the manufacturers.
Leary had no patience for scriptural literalism, except to note sardonically that Eden was the site of the first drug bust. Instead, he looked for Higher Intelligence far from religious—and scientific—orthodoxies.
The psychedelic experience had convinced him that DNA not only preserves the evolutionary past—a prescient assertion, given the recent finding that DNA is conserved across species —but also already holds in storage the evolutionary future.
Leary proposed that biological phenotypes are pre-coded into DNA. In the case of humans, modalities of mind are among the phenotypes pre-coded. His model of developmental and evolutionary psychology, based on eight "brain circuits" that are activated sequentially— during the development of an individual and species-wide during evolution —includes terrestrial and post-terrestrial stages.
The first four circuits govern the experiences of planetbound life. The last four become activated in outer space. Leary proposed that psychedelic drugs temporarily activate or emulate or simulate the extraterrestrial circuits. Although unwieldy and possibly maladaptive on Earth, the psychedelic experience delivers a preview of modes of consciousness that will be the norm among space dwellers. Under the influence of the drugs, future evolutionary stages present themselves to the mind for perusal.
When it became clear that space colonization and post-terrestrial consciousness lay farther in the future than Leary was likely to live to see, he re-issued Exo-Psychology as Info-Psychology. A sidelining of his extraterrestrial ideals, the re-issuing appeared to be a transparent move to cash in on the personal computing boom of the s.
Leary proved adept at changing lanes and wives and became an elder statesman of the cyberpunks and a video game developer at about the same time that beat novelist William Burroughs re-emerged as an impresario of the music and poetry punks.
Leary even engaged in touring debates with his old nemesis, Nixonian henchman G. Gordon Liddy. It is relevant to the star larvae hypothesis in a number of ways: It proposes that evolution unfolds according to a program, that biology arrives on planets from space and, after planetary incubation, returns to space in a symbiosis with its technologies. Leary referred in passing to weightlessness and cosmic radiation, but he did not propose specific physical or physiological mechanisms that would trigger the final four, psychedelic, brain circuits.
Nonetheless, the retention in space brains of the circuitry that is lost when brains develop on Earth constitutes a plausible neurological mechanism for a psychedelic post-planetary consciousness. Such a consciousness, arising from an enrichment of brain tissue, will extend the trend line of human neoteny , or juvenilization. It will be psychedelic to the extent that infantile and psychedelic modes of consciousness overlap.
And they seem to share a considerable ground. As aimless and unproductive as a baby. The first post-larval generation those born between and naturally bore the brunt of mutational confusion.
We can imagine that the first generation of amphibians was similarly misunderstood as crazy, lazy, mixed-up kids, laying around on the shoreline passively enjoying the naked sun and sniffing oxygen. The term refers to a conflation of sensory modalities, as in "hearing colors" or "seeing sounds. Baron-Cohen cites evidence of cross-referencing of the sensory modalities of infants, as in research that shows that infants exhibit more visual interest in objects that they previously had explored tactilely, or changes in heart rate that correlate with changes in intensity of auditory and visual stimuli but that are not elicited by intensity-matched stimuli.
Sounds trigger auditory and visual and tactile experiences. A truly psychedelic state, and all natural—no illegal substances play a role. Researchers have found transient connections among the visual, auditory, somatosensory, and motor cortices in the brains of kittens and baby hamsters, Baron-Cohen points out, and he cites evidence that something similar occurs in human infants. It would seem then that the sensorium is less differentiated in infants than in adults.
And it would follow that a retention of juvenile brain structures— neurological neoteny —a retardation of development, would tend to preserve the otherwise transient connections among the various cortices of the brain.
As a result, the normally transient sensory modality of synesthesia would become a permanent feature of extraterrestrial psychology. Synesthesia is an evident area of overlap between psychedelic and juvenile modes of experience.
As much as psychedelics juvenilize, juvenilization should psychedelicize. Unconditioned and Deconditioned Experience Another, more general, area of overlap between the infantile and the psychedelic, albeit one that is hard to characterize precisely, might be described as unconditioned experience. In The Infant Mind , researcher Richard Restak illustrates by taking us inside the experiential world of a four-month-old: "In reaching, infants have a difficulty few adults have complained about.
Their hand is so interesting, so arresting that it captures their attention whenever it enters the visual field. Only the infant truly appreciates the beauty of the human hand. While strolling a wooded path he notices that, "A rotten log bearing rows of fungus and patches of moss became as precious as any work of Cellini—an inwardly luminous construct of jet, amber, jade and ivory, all the porous and spongy disintegrations of the wood seeming to have been carved out with infinite patience and skill.
How do such mundane objects wield the power to transfix a mind? Maybe the answer has to do with the type of mind. Adults typically will treat a log on a path or a hand at the end of an arm with indifference.
Starting at birth, a brain is subjected to conditioning agents that range from the physical environment which in the industrialized world might include electric sockets, hot stoves, and steep stairs , to parents, teachers, and coaches reprimands, grades and benchings , to romantic intimates, employers, mass media and various cultural totems and taboos. The lessons of the environment, including the norms of the tribe—instilled through socialization, enculturation, and schooling—shape psychological habits.
But what if the result of all this conditioning could be suspended and consciousness returned to its natural, pre-conditioned state? How does raw mind experience the world? Children have spontaneous cognition based more on instinct than on intellect. Thus, they are closer to intuitive knowledge and to their true nature than adults.
We begin by concentrating on that which keeps us from knowing the truth, namely, the mind itself. The drugs inhibit conditioned patterns of thought and perception, rendering the drug-taker psychologically a child. And the acidhead enthralled by swirling patterns in an ashtray similarly cannot dismiss the encounter as a run-in with something mere.
In early a team of researchers using various imaging techniques, including fMRI and magnetoencephalography MEG , to chart changes in the human brain that occur under the influence of LSD, reached conclusions pertinent to the foregoing analysis; namely, by corroborating the notion that under psychedelics the adult mind reverts to, or reprises, the infant mind.
However, under LSD the separateness of these networks breaks down and instead you see a more integrated or unified brain. In many ways, the brain in the LSD state resembles the state our brains were in when we were infants: free and unconstrained. And in that there might be therapeutic potential. Baby consciousness is so different from adult consciousness as to constitute a mental country of its own, one from which we are expelled sometime early in adolescence.
Is there a way back in? The closest we can come to visiting that foreign land as adults may be during the psychedelic journey. This at least is the startling hypothesis of Alison Gopnik, a developmental psychologist and philosopher who happens to be a colleague of mine at Berkeley. The terms are meant to connote a structural and functional looseness of mind.
The star larvae hypothesis considers such newly coined terms superfluous. Psychedelics loosen whatever conditioning and imprinting shape the normal mind, and the drugs can facilitate a re-conditioning and re-imprinting of the mind. Or, as Gopnik observes,"Being inexperienced in the way of the world, the mind of the young child has comparatively few priors, or preconceptions, to guide her perceptions down the predictable tracks.
Instead, the child approaches reality with the astonishment of an adult on psychedelics. The pull of de- or unconditioned experience would seem to be an aesthetic attraction. A mind molded and lulled by cultural media has to struggle to see through its habits.
It has a hard time perceiving beauties that fail to conform to the aesthetic rules of the tribe. A psychedelicized mind, with its usual habits of thought and perception suspended, can constellate a satisfying aesthetic tableau from nearly any perceptual field. It extracts beauty. Post-Wittgensteinian philosophers, those aligned with "the linguistic turn" in recent philosophy, have made the same discovery. Humans navigate by conceptual "frames" imposed on consciousness by the local culture.
All values and beliefs "vocabularies" are cultural artifacts. Not only is it the rare person who can adopt values and beliefs outside those of his or her culture, but it is the rare person who can even articulate such a possibility. It would seem finally to do away with any lingering notions of individual soul. The nexus of subjectivity that each person experiences him- or herself to be is a psychological artifact that environmental conditioning constructs, layer upon layer.
This is where the psychedelic perspective diverges from the "linguistic turn" of postmodern philosophy. But the suspension of conditioned reality does not snuff consciousness; it liberates consciousness, retrieves the natural, unconditioned state. The psychedelic state is non-game; it suspends conditioned habits, cultural and conceptual "frames". Psychedelic drugs connect consciousness to the unconscious; they make the unconscious conscious. They promote "out of the box" experience, freeing experience from social expectation.
Eight-circuit model of consciousness
In the first months as a "plebe", he received numerous demerits for rule infractions and then got into serious trouble for failing to report rule breaking by cadets he supervised. He was also accused of going on a drinking binge and failing to admit it, and was asked by the Honor Committee to resign. He refused and was "silenced" — that is, shunned, by fellow cadets. He was acquitted by a court-martial, but the silencing continued, as well as the onslaught of demerits for small rule infractions.
EXO PSYCHOLOGY TIMOTHY LEARY PDF
Exo-psychology Timothy Leary Archives A warning is in order. The star larvae hypothesis considers such newly coined terms superfluous. And the last of the eight circuits makes mind look in the mirror. Because neoteny extends fetal growth patterns, it will tend to enrich brain circuitry. Synesthesia is an evident area of overlap between psychedelic and juvenile modes of experience.
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Addendum: Exo-Psychology Revisited Exo-Psychology Revisited Brain circuits juvenilized by weightlessness will mediate a concomitantly juvenilized subjectivity. The psychedelic, or entheogenic , experience provides a preview of the de-differentiated consciousness likely to characterize the juvenilized minds of extraterrestrials. One conclusion was forced upon my mind at that time, and my impression of its truth has ever since remained unshaken. It is that our normal waking consciousness, rational consciousness as we call it, is but one special type of consciousness, whilst all about it, parted from it by the filmiest of screens, there lie potential forms of consciousness entirely different.