AZOOSPERMIA NO OBSTRUCTIVA PDF

Other cases of nonobstructive azoospermia include Illegal drug use, excessive drinking and smoking. Genetics Not all genetic causes of impaired sperm production are understood yet, but it is a field we study and watch closely. It is important to understand that: Causes that are known and diagnosable can help guide your treatment, with a better likelihood of finding hidden sperm for some conditions than others. You risk passing genetic mutations to children, so our genetic counselors help guide you through those important decisions. Y Chromosome Deletion The Y chromosome contains many genes that are critical for sperm production, but some men are missing crucial sections. Y chromosome deletions cause up to 10 percent of azoospermia cases, so we carefully screen for this possibility.

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Other cases of nonobstructive azoospermia include Illegal drug use, excessive drinking and smoking. Genetics Not all genetic causes of impaired sperm production are understood yet, but it is a field we study and watch closely.

It is important to understand that: Causes that are known and diagnosable can help guide your treatment, with a better likelihood of finding hidden sperm for some conditions than others. You risk passing genetic mutations to children, so our genetic counselors help guide you through those important decisions. Y Chromosome Deletion The Y chromosome contains many genes that are critical for sperm production, but some men are missing crucial sections.

Y chromosome deletions cause up to 10 percent of azoospermia cases, so we carefully screen for this possibility. In fact, one of our advisors Dr. Renee Reijo Pera was the first investigator to identify the importance of these genes in sperm production. The diagnosis of a specific Y chromosome problem is important, since certain deletions e.

Any sons born to fathers with Y chromosome deletions will inherit the defect. Karyotype abnormality Men normally have 46 chromosomes: Pairs numbering 1 through 22 for a total of 44, plus an X and a Y. But up to 10 percent of nonobstructive azoospermia patients have detectable abnormalities that can limit sperm production. An extra X chromosome causes Klinefelter syndrome, characterized by poor testicular function as well as low sperm counts and testosterone levels.

But we are still often able to find some sperm in such cases. Radiation and toxins Certain exposures can impair sperm production: Some toxic chemicals with possible links to pesticides Heavy metals Chemotherapy Radiation therapy If you plan to undergo chemotherapy or radiation treatment, it is often a good idea to freeze cryopreserve sperm ahead of time. But we are still often able to find sperm after such cancer treatments.

Medications Several medications can harm sperm production, so we help you decide which, if any, you want to continue using. Testosterone is one example: While the hormone is necessary for normal reproductive function, taking it in supplemental form can often cause azoospermia.

Hormone imbalances It is possible that an imbalance of hormones is causing your azoospermia, and we can treat the problem. Varicocele Veins in the scrotum may become enlarged and widened, forming a varicocele and impairing normal sperm production.

Learn more about varicocele care through our partner, the Male Reproductive Medicine and Surgery Program. Learn more about.

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AZOOSPERMIA NO OBSTRUCTIVA PDF

Classification[ edit ] Azoospermia can be classified into three major types as listed. Pretesticular[ edit ] Pretesticular azoospermia is characterized by inadequate stimulation of otherwise normal testicles and genital tract. Typically, follicle-stimulating hormone FSH levels are low hypogonadotropic commensurate with inadequate stimulation of the testes to produce sperm. Examples include hypopituitarism for various causes , hyperprolactinemia , and exogenous FSH suppression by testosterone. Chemotherapy may suppress spermatogenesis. Testicular[ edit ] In this situation the testes are abnormal, atrophic, or absent, and sperm production severely disturbed to absent. FSH levels tend to be elevated hypergonadotropic as the feedback loop is interrupted lack of feedback inhibition on FSH.

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Azoospermia

When one or more of the genes on this chromosome that is responsible for sperm production are deleted, it can result in azoospermia. These can cause a blockage in the small tubules of the epididymis or the ejaculatory duct. Defects in ogstructiva area can lead to oligospermia or azoospermia, however, a tight genotype-phenotype correlation has not been achieved. This is typically a worst-case-scenario cause of NOA.

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