ASTM D7263 PDF

Laboratory Determination of Density Unit Weight of Soil Specimens1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Scope 1. Density unit weight as used in this standard means the same as bulk density of soil as defined by the Soil Science Society of America.

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Laboratory Determination of Density Unit Weight of Soil Specimens1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.

A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Scope 1. Density unit weight as used in this standard means the same as bulk density of soil as defined by the Soil Science Society of America. Intact specimens may be obtained from thin-walled sampling tubes, block samples, or clods. Specimens that are remolded by dynamic or static compaction procedures may also be measured by these methods. These methods apply to soils that will retain their shape during the measurement process and may also apply to other materials such as soil-cement, soil-lime, soil-bentonite or solidified soil-bentonite-cement slurries.

It is common for the density unit weight of specimens after removal from sampling tubes and compaction molds to be less than the value based on tube or mold volumes, or of in-situ conditions. This is due to the specimen swelling after removal of lateral pressures.

The values stated in inch-pound units are approximate. Current edition approved March 15, Published April DOI: How one applies the results obtained using this standard is beyond its scope. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

No further reproductions authorized. When particle density, that is, specific gravity Test Methods D is also known, dry density can be used to calculate porosity and void ratio see Appendix X1. Dry density measurements are also useful for determining degree of soil compaction. Since moisture content is variable, moist soil density provides little useful information except to estimate the weight of soil per unit volume, for example, pounds per cubic yard, at the time of sampling. Since soil volume shrinks with drying of swelling soils, bulk density will vary with moisture content.

Hence, the water content of the soil should be determined at the time of sampling. Dry density values are usually used in conjunction with compaction curve values Test Methods D and D NOTE 1The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used.

Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on several factors; Practice D provides a means of evaluating some of these factors. Apparatus 5. A Class GP1 balance of 0. For method A, the balance must be capable of measuring the mass of the specimen suspended in water.

This is usually accomplished by a weighing hook built into the balance for that purpose, or a yoke assemblage is placed upon the pan which suspends a thin, non-absorbent string or wire, that is, a nylon line, etc. NOTE 2The waxes generally used are commercially available and have density values in the range of 0.

A container heated by hot water, preferably thermostatically controlled, is satisfactory. The wax should be heated to only slightly above the melting point to avoid flashing of the wax vapors and to permit quickly forming a uniform surface coating of wax. WarningVapors given off by molten wax ignite spontaneously above C F and should not be allowed to come in contact with the heating element or open flame.

The basket shall be constructed to prevent trapping air when it is submerged. The basket is suspended from the balance by a fine thread or string. A hairnet may also be used in lieu of the basket for smaller soil specimens.

NOTE 3Circumferential measuring tapes are recommended over calipers for measuring the diameter of cylindrical specimens.

D 09 5. Samples and Test Specimens 6. Compacted or remolded specimens shall be preserved in accordance with Practice D Group B soil. Maintain the samples that are stored prior to testing in non-corrodible airtight containers at a temperature between approximately 3 and 30C and in an area that prevents direct contact with sunlight.

Specimens shall have a minimum dimension of 30 mm 1. For specimens having a dimension of 72 mm 2. If, after completion of a test on an intact specimen, visual observations indicate that larger particles than permitted are present, indicate this information in the remarks section of the report of test data. Procedure 7. If required, trim the specimen to a fairly regular shape. Re-entrant angles should be avoided, and any cavities formed by large particles being pulled out should be patched carefully with material from the trimmings.

Handle specimens carefully to minimize disturbance, change in shape, or change in water content. Apply a second coat of wax after the first coat has hardened. The wax should be sufficiently warm to flow when brushed on the specimen, yet it should not be so hot that it dries the soil. NOTE 4If overheated wax comes in contact with the soil specimen, it may cause the moisture to vaporize and form air bubbles under the wax. Bubbles may be trimmed out and filled with wax.

This is done by placing the specimen in a wire basket hooked onto a balance and immersing the basket and specimen in a container of water. In order to directly measure the submerged mass of the wet soil and wax, the balance must have been previously balanced tared to zero with the wire basket completely submerged in the container of water.

Make sure that the specimen and basket is fully submerged, and that the basket is not touching the sides or bottom of the container. NOTE 5Maintain water bath temperature and submerged basket depth the same as when calibrated or zeroed.

It can be peeled off after a break is made in the wax surface. NOTE 6The water content may be determined from an adjacent piece of soil or from trimmings if appropriate, for example, if the wax becomes difficult to remove from the specimen.

Note in the report if water content is not from the specimen itself. Specimens can be obtained from intact block samples using a sharp cutting ring. Specimens are usually cubical or cylindrical in shape. NOTE 7Core sampling might be difficult or impossible in gravelly or hard dry soils.

Wet soils tend to be more plastic and subject to compression. The height and inner dimensions of the tube may be taken to represent specimen dimensions. NOTE 8Some soils may expand into the sampling tube with a resultant change in volume from the original in-situ condition. Where removal of gravel or crumbling resulting from trimming causes voids on the surface of the specimen, carefully fill the voids with remolded soil obtained from the trimmings.

When the sample condition permits, a vertical trimming lathe may be used to reduce cylindrical specimens to a uniform diameter. D 09 7. Perform one or more water content determinations on material obtained during the trimming of the specimen in accordance with Test Method D for the estimated water content s.

Final water content shall be performed on the whole specimen or representative slice if other testing such as plasticity limits, Test Methods D, are required at the end of the test. Determine and record the mass g and dimensions mm of the specimen to four significant digits using the applicable apparatus described in 5.

A minimum of three height measurements approximately apart if three, 90 apart if four, etc. A minimum of three measurements each of length, width and height shall be made to determine the volume of cubical specimens.

After a specimen is formed, trim if necessary the ends perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, remove the mold, and determine the mass and dimensions of the test specimens in accordance with 7. The height and inner dimensions of the mold may be taken to represent specimen dimensions.

NOTE 10It is common for the density unit weight of the specimen after removal from the mold to be less than the value based on the volume of the mold.

This occurs as a result of the specimen swelling after removal of the lateral confinement due to the mold. Calculations 8.

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ASTM D7263

More D When particle density, that is, specific gravity Test Methods D is also known, dry density can be used to calculate porosity and void ratio see Appendix X1. Dry density measurements are also useful for determining degree of soil compaction. Since moisture content is variable, moist soil density provides little useful information except to estimate the weight of soil per unit volume, for example, pounds per cubic yard, at the time of sampling. Since soil volume shrinks with drying of swelling soils, bulk density will vary with moisture content. Hence, the water content of the soil should be determined at the time of sampling. Dry density values are usually used in conjunction with compaction curve values Test Methods D and D

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Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. Your Alert Profile lists the documents that will be monitored. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Dry wstm measurements are also useful for determining degree of soil compaction.

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