Genome assembly from Illumina whole genome sequencing Consent Allowed for reuse citing original author Sample source location Open in a separate window Apis mellifera intermissa, the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria and most of North Africa, is distinctly darker [13] with some times light illumination on the tergites. This honey bee is characterized by a small size, nervousness, aggressive defense behavior and an abundant use of propolis [12]. Ritter [11] described the tolerance of A. Moreover it has a higher level of hygienic behavior compared with several other subspecies [8] and it is characterized by a good cleaning ability [2]. Some pathogens and viruses had been detected, at a low level, in A. Such abilities of adaptation to variable climatic conditions, hygienic behavior, Varroa mite tolerance, low infestation with American foulbrood, Nosema, and DWV virus makes A.

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The collecting bees store the nectar in a second stomach and return to the hive, where worker bees remove the nectar. The worker bees digest the raw nectar for about 30 minutes, using enzymes to break down the complex sugars into simpler ones. Raw honey is then spread in empty honeycomb cells to dry, reducing its water content to less than 20 percent. When nectar is being processed, honey bees create a draft through the hive by fanning with their wings.

When the honey has dried, the honeycomb cells are sealed capped with wax to preserve it. When a hive detects smoke, many bees become nonaggressive; this is thought to be a defense mechanism. Wild colonies generally live in hollow trees; when they detect smoke, they are thought to prepare to evacuate from a forest fire with as much food as they can.

To do this, they go to the nearest honey-storage cells and gorge on honey. In this state they are docile, since defending against predation is less important than saving as much food as possible. Thermoregulation File:European Honeybee Apis mellifera lapping mouthparts, showing labium and maxillae..

Honey bees can forage over a Template:Convert air-temperature range because of behavioral and physiological mechanisms for regulating the temperature of their flight muscles. From low to high air temperatures, the mechanisms are: shivering before flight, and stopping flight for additional shivering; passive body-temperature regulation based on work, and evaporative cooling from regurgitated honey-sac contents.

Body temperatures differ, depending on caste and expected foraging rewards. The honey bee uses evaporative cooling to release heat through its mouth. Honey bees can tolerate temperatures up to Template:Convert for short periods.

Queens Edit Template:Main Periodically, the colony determines that a new queen is needed. There are three general causes: The hive is filled with honey, leaving little room for new eggs. This will trigger a swarm, where the old queen will take about half the worker bees to found a new colony and leave the new queen with the other half of the workers to continue the old one.

The old queen begins to fail, which is thought to be demonstrated by a decrease in queen pheromones throughout the hive. This is known as supersedure, and at the end of the supersedure the old queen is generally killed. The old queen dies suddenly, a situation known as emergency supersedure. The worker bees find several eggs or larvae of the appropriate age range and attempt to develop them into queens. Emergency supersedure can generally be recognized because new queen cells are built out from comb cells, instead of hanging from the bottom of a frame.

Regardless of the trigger, workers develop the larvae into queens by continuing to feed them royal jelly which triggers extended pupal development. File:Queencell JPG When the virgin queen emerged, she was thought to seek out other queen cells and sting the infant queens within; should two queens emerge simultaneously, they were thought to fight to the death.

However, recent research has indicated as many as 10 percent of Apis mellifera colonies may maintain two queens. Although the mechanism by which this occurs is not yet known, it has reportedly occurred more frequently in some South African subspecies. Template:Citation needed The queen asserts control over the worker bees by releasing a complex suite of pheromones known as queen scent.

They detect the presence of a queen in their congregation area by her smell, find her by sight and mate with her in midair; drones can be induced to mate with "dummy" queens with the queen pheromone. A queen will mate multiple times, and may leave to mate several days in a row weather permitting until her spermatheca is full. The queen lays all the eggs in a healthy colony.

The number and pace of egg-laying is controlled by weather, resource availability and specific racial characteristics. Queens generally begin to slow egg-laying in the early fall, and may stop during the winter. Egg-laying generally resumes in late winter when the days lengthen, peaking in the spring.

At the height of the season, the queen may lay over 2, eggs per day more than her body mass. She fertilizes each egg with stored sperm from the spermatheca as it is laid in a worker-sized cell.

Eggs laid in drone-sized larger cells are left unfertilized; these unfertilized eggs, with half as many genes as queen or worker eggs, develop into drones. Queen-worker conflict Edit When a fertile female worker produces drones, a conflict arises between her interests and those of the queen. The worker shares half her genes with the drone and one-quarter with her brothers, favoring her offspring over those of the queen.

The queen shares half her genes with her sons and one-quarter with the sons of fertile female workers. This relationship leads to a phenomenon known as "worker policing". Another form of worker-based policing is aggression toward fertile females.

In very rare instances workers subvert the policing mechanisms of the hive, laying eggs which are removed at a lower rate by other workers; this is known as anarchic syndrome. Anarchic workers can activate their ovaries at a higher rate and contribute a greater proportion of males to the hive. Anarchic syndrome is an example of selection working in opposite directions at the individual and group levels for the stability of the hive. The workers of the hive produce a last batch of drones before the hive eventually collapses.

Although during this period worker policing is usually absent, in certain groups of bees it continues. Workers would be related by three-quarters of their genes, and the difference in relationship between sons of the queen and those of the other workers would decrease.

The benefit of policing is negated, and policing is less favored. Experiments confirming this hypothesis have shown a correlation between higher mating rates and increased rates of worker policing in many species of social hymenoptera. Since , attention has been devoted to colony collapse disorder , a decline in European honey bee colonies in a number of regions. The European honey bee is the third insect, after the fruit fly and the mosquito, to have its genome mapped.

According to scientists who analyzed its genetic code, the honey bee originated in Africa and spread to Europe in two ancient migrations. Another significant finding from the honey bee genome study was that honey bee was the first insect to be discovered with a functional DNA methylation system because functional key enzymes DNA methyl-transferase 1 and 3 were identified in the genome.

DNA methylation is one of the important mechanisms in epigenetics to study gene expression and regulation without changing the DNA sequence, but modifications on the DNA. Honey bees use pheromones for nearly all behaviors, including mating , alarm, defense , orientation, kin and colony recognition, food production and integrating colony activities.

Communication File:Bee swarm on fallen tree Karl von Frisch , who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his study of honey-bee communication, noticed that bees communicate with dance. Through these dances, bees communicate information regarding the distance, the situation, and the direction of a food source by the dances of the returning honey bee worker bee on the vertical comb of the hive. Although the round dance tells other foragers that food is within Template:Convert of the hive, it provides insufficient information about direction.

The waggle dance, which may be vertical or horizontal, provides more detail about the distance and direction of a food source. Foragers are also thought to rely on their olfactory sense to help locate a food source after they are directed by the dances. Another means of communication is the shaking signal, also known as the jerking dance, vibration dance or vibration signal. Although the shaking signal is most common in worker communication, it also appears in reproductive swarming.

A worker bee vibrates its body dorsoventrally while holding another bee with its front legs. About 71 percent of shaking signals occurred before the first five successful foraging flights of the day; other communication signals, such as the waggle dance, were performed more often after the first five successes. Biesmeijer demonstrated that most shakers are foragers and the shaking signal is most often executed by foraging bees on pre-foraging bees, concluding that it is a transfer message for several activities or activity levels.

Sometimes the signal increases activity, as when active bees shake inactive ones. At other times, such as the end of the day, the signal is an inhibitory mechanism. However, the shaking signal is preferentially directed towards inactive bees. All three forms of communication among honey bees are effective in foraging and task management.

Beekeeping File:Apis mellifera queen and workers. Honey bees do not survive and reproduce individually, but as part of the colony also known as a superorganism. Honey bees collect flower nectar and convert it to honey , which is stored in the hive. Honey bees also collect pollen , which supplies protein and fat for the bee brood to grow.

Centuries of selective breeding by humans have created bees which produce far more honey than the colony needs, and beekeepers also known as apiarists harvest the surplus honey. JPG Beekeepers provide a place for the colony to live and store honey. There are seven basic types of beehive : skeps , Langstroth hives , top-bar hives , box hives , log gums , D.

All U. This allows beekeepers to keep Langstroth, top-bar and D. The type of beehive significantly impacts colony health and wax and honey production. Modern hives also enable beekeepers to transport bees, moving from field to field as crops require pollinating a source of income for beekeepers. In cold climates, some beekeepers have kept colonies alive with varying degrees of success by moving them indoors for winter. Inside wintering has been refined by Canadian beekeepers, who use large barns solely for the wintering of bees; automated ventilation systems assist in carbon-dioxide dispersal.


Apis mellifera intermissa



Apis Mellifera Intermissa



Apis mellifera


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