ARISTOTLE SOPHISTICAL REFUTATIONS PDF

Enter full screen mode On Sophistical Refutations give their name to the treatise. Books VII. The De Sophisticis Elenchis Just as Aristotle treats of the demonstrative and the dialectical syllogism in the Posterior Analytics and the Topica, respectively, so in this treatise, which forms a kind of appendix to the Topica, he deals with the sophistical syllogism. A knowledge of this is part of the necessary equipment of the arguer, not in order that he may himself make use of it but that he may avoid it, and that the unwary may not be ensnared in the toils of sophistical argument; in fact, Aristotle is carrying on the Socratic and early-Platonic tradition by attacking the Sophists, who taught the use of logical fallacy in order to make the worse cause appear the better. The treatise is, in fact, a study of fallacies in general, which are classified under various headings and fall into two main classes, those which depend on the language employed and those which do not.

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Converse accident: consists of a hasty and uncontested generalization. Blond people are good writers. B is true, therefore C is also true. Mary is free, therefore Mary is honest. Irrelevant conclusion: In this fallacy, the statement that is presented as evidence actually has nothing to do with what it is wanting to prove. Begging the question: a circular reasoning. In this fallacy, the conclusion that has to be proved is included in the same phrase.

Fallacy of the many questions: occurs when the answer is implicit in the question. Fallacies of the cause: reasonings that are not correct because the cause and effect are not well identified. This error can be committed in several ways: correlation: supposes to believe that if two events, A and B, happen at the same time, A must be the cause of B.

This is not always true. It may be the opposite or a coincidence. For example, the sale of ice cream can rise at a certain time because prices fall. But it may be summer too, or there has been an increase in the number of people in the neighborhood where it is sold. In this work, the philosopher identifies thirteen types of sophisms, that is, reasonings that seem true but are false.

Aristotle divides fallacies into two groups: Those that depend on language based on the ambiguity of language, such as equivocation, amphibology or accent and those that do not depend on language which are based on erroneous reasonings, such as fallacies of the cause, begging the question, or fallacy of the many questions. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.

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